Footnote: What we mean, when we say Gallic/Gaelic immigrants.

by Richard L. Thornton, Architect and City Planner

Preparing you for being shocked in “The Peopling of the Southeast.” Creek, Chickasaw and Uchee descendants will be surprised as to who they really are. Over the past 18 years, I have just followed the evidence, wherever it led . . . and certainly never intended to prove partial European ancestry for Southeastern Native Americans. In fact, for five decades I was extremely hostile to Caucasian authors and self-styled anthropologists, who attempted to do so.

The artistic, linguistic and genetic legacy is irrefutable. There is substantial evidence that the Muskogee Creeks (but not my Itsate/Apalache Creek ancestors) are the direct descendants of the people, who carved the concentric circle petroglyphs in the Etowah River Basin in Georgia, such as you see above. In contrast, my Apalache Creek ancestors, plus the Miccosukee in Florida and the Thlophlocco Tribal Town Creeks in Oklahoma are the direct descendants of the people from near Nyköping, Sweden, who carved the Track Rock petroglyphs around 2000 BC. The Nyköping writing system evolved into the Maya writing system. That is plausible, because the Maya Migration Legend says that their ancestors once lived in a land of ice and snow, northeast of North America. They did not come across the Bering Strait.

No! The image on the left is not an exhibit of Deptford Culture artifacts found around Savannah, Georgia. It is from a museum in County Kerry, Ireland!

The problem is that identical petroglyphic boulders may be found in Galacia and Asturia in Spain . . . County Kerry, Ireland and near Tepoztlan, Morelos, Mexico. From eyewitness accounts, we know that the Galicians in NW Iberia and SW Ireland originally had black hair, pronounced cheek bones and bronzetone skin. They would have not looked terribly different than mixed-blood Muskogeans or even some full-bloods. Thousands of years of intermarriage with American Indians would have produced people, who looked like “pure” American Indians, but who carried both genes and words from northwestern and northern Europe. The Muskogee words for water (akwa and ue) come from either Latin and Illyrian, respectively.

No! Although the copper artifacts in both museums are identical, this photo is not from the Copper Age Room in the Stadsmuseum in Landskrona, Sweden, but an exhibit on the Old Great Lakes Copper Culture in the Milwaukee, Wisconsin Public Museum. The fact that the copper artifacts in both regions are identical is highly significant. American Indian hunters did not need grain sickles! Scandinavians did not have a source for copper ore until ethnic Swedes conquered Sami lands near Falun, Sweden around 1020 AD.

There is more to this story, however. I have identified at least four periods of immigration into Georgia and South Carolina by Galicians or Gaelic People. Only the third and fourth was definitely from Ireland. The first two could well have been from the Iberian Peninsula. Some Galicians went all the way across the Atlantic to the Georgia Gold Belt and Great Lakes Copper Belt. Others went to the gold-bearing mountains of southwestern Ireland.

Now don’t get too upset!


  1. This is very interesting! We recently passed through Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia on our way to Tennessee. I noticed a lot of places that had the “ awa” “ Bo” in the names. That really got my attention because those are word parts used in Spanish and other indigenous languages. The swirls on the boulder looks similar to something I’ve seen elsewhere. Do you know/ have an idea of what the swirls mean? When you say Gaelic would the Basque be included in that ? I apologize for all the questions but this is very interesting!

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Bo is an archaic Scandinavian word and suffix, meaning “living place.” For example, the origin of the English word, borough and Swedish, borg, are the words bo – rek, which mean “living place of the king.” What I still have not figured out is why “bo” means the same thing in the Panoan language of Peru. Many Panoans migrated to Georgia, southern South Carolina and eastern Tennessee. Most likely “awa” comes from one of the Muskogee words for water “owa.”

      By the way, you would easily pass for a Louisiana Cajun. Most of them nowadays are a mixture of French, Spanish and Native American.

      Liked by 2 people

      1. In Taino and in Cuba Bohío is used when referring to a round thatched home or Bo/ big, great as in Boriken/ Puerto Rico.

        Liked by 1 person

  2. I tried attaching a picture of the swirl that I am referring to ( which means water) but it might differ in meaning to the one you shared. It’s not letting me attach it but it’s similar

    Liked by 1 person

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